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Python xlsxwriter

last modified August 12, 2022

Python xlsxwriter tutorial shows how to write Excel xlsx files in Python with xlsxwriter.

xlsxwriter

The xlsxwriter is a Python library to write files in the Excel 2007+ XLSX file format.

Excel xlsx

In this tutorial we work with xlsx files. The xlsx is a file extension for an open XML spreadsheet file format used by Microsoft Excel. The xlsm files support macros. The xls format is a proprietary binary format while xlsx is based on Office Open XML format.

$ pip install xlsxwriter

We install xlsxwriter with the pip tool.

Python xlsxwriter first example

The following program creates a simple Excel file.

first.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('first.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

ws.write('A1', 'misty mountains')
ws.write(2, 0, 123)

wb.close()

In the example, we write data into two cells.

import xlsxwriter

We import the module.

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('first.xlsx')

A new workbook is created. A workbook is the container for all other parts of the document. The parameter is the name of the Excel file.

ws = wb.add_worksheet()

We add a new worksheet with add_worksheet.

ws.write('A1', 'misty mountains')
ws.write(2, 0, 123)

We write to two cells. There are two basic ways of identifying cells. The Excel key A1 denotes the top-left cell of the sheet. In the second case, the first two parameters are the row and column of the cell. The indexing start from zero.

wb.close()

In the end, we close the file.

Python write_xlsx write data

There are various methods to write data to the sheet.

writing.py
#!/usr/bin/python

from datetime import datetime
import xlsxwriter
import datetime

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('writing.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

ws.set_column('A:A', 25)

ws.write_string('A1', 'misty mountains')
ws.write_number(1, 0, 123)
ws.write_url('A3', 'http://webcode.me')

df = wb.add_format({'num_format': 'dd/mm/yy'})
ws.write_datetime('A4', datetime.datetime.now(), df)

ital = wb.add_format({'italic': True})
bold = wb.add_format({'bold': True})
cent = wb.add_format({'align': 'center'})

ws.write_rich_string('A5', bold, 'an old falcon ',
                     ital, 'wild river', cent)

ws.write_boolean('A6', True)

wb.close()

In the example, we write a number, a string, an URL, a datetime, a rich string, and a boolean.

ws.set_column('A:A', 25)

We enlarge the first column with set_column. The width is set in character units.

ws.write_string('A1', 'misty mountains')
ws.write_number(1, 0, 123)

A string is written with write_string; a number is written with write_number.

ws.write_url('A3', 'http://webcode.me')

An URL is written with write_url.

df = wb.add_format({'num_format': 'dd/mm/yy'})
ws.write_datetime('A4', datetime.datetime.now(), df)

A datetime is written with write_datetime. We also specify the datetime format.

ital = wb.add_format({'italic': True})
bold = wb.add_format({'bold': True})
cent = wb.add_format({'align': 'center'})

ws.write_rich_string('A5', bold, 'an old falcon ',
                        ital, 'wild river', cent)

With add_format, we create three format units. A rich string is written with write_rich_string. A format is applied to the adjacent text. The last format (cent in our case) is applied to the whole text.

ws.write_boolean('A6', True)

Finally, a boolean value is written with write_boolean.

Python xlsxwriter write_row & write_column

To write a column of data, we use the write_column method. To write a row of data, we use the write_row method.

rows_cols.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('rows_cols.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

vals = [12, 14, 25, 29, 19, 35]

ws.write_column('A1', vals)
ws.write_row(8, 0, vals)

wb.close()

We have a list of integers. We write those integers in a single column and a single row.


It is common to store data in dictionaries.

dics.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('dics.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

sales = {'Product A': [104, 411, 122, 345], 'Product B': [
    807, 913, 932, 567], 'Product C': [89, 91, 82, 88]}

cn = 0
for k, v in sales.items():

    ws.write(0, cn, k)
    ws.write_column(1, cn, v)
    cn += 1

wb.close()

In the example, we write data stored in a dictionary.

sales = {'Product A': [104, 411, 122, 345], 'Product B': [
    807, 913, 932, 567], 'Product C': [89, 91, 82, 88]}

We have sales of three products in a Python dictionary.

cn = 0
for k, v in sales.items():

    ws.write(0, cn, k)
    ws.write_column(1, cn, v)
    cn += 1

We go over the dictionary and print each dictionary item in a single column, having a key as a header and value as column data.

Python xlsxwriter merge_range

The merge_range function merge a range of cells. Its parameters are the row and column of the top-left and bottom-right cells, the data to write, and the optional cell format.

merge.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('merging.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

mf = wb.add_format({'align': 'center', 'valign': 'vcenter'})
ws.merge_range(1, 1, 2, 2, 'an old falcon', mf)

ws.merge_range('E5:G6', 'misty mountains', mf)

wb.close()

In the example, we merge two groups of cells.

Python xlsxwriter insert_image

An image is inserted into a sheet with insert_image method.

image.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('image.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

ws.write('A1', 'Sid, the sloth')

ws.insert_image('A3', 'sid.jpg')

wb.close()

The example inserts a JPEG image into a cell.

Python xlsxwriter write_formula

A formula is written with write_formula. Note that the worksheet must be recalculated for it to work.

formula.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import xlsxwriter

vals = [12, 32, 12, 4, 99, 78]

wb = xlsxwriter.Workbook('formula.xlsx')
ws = wb.add_worksheet()

for idx, e in enumerate(vals):
    ws.write_number(idx, 0, e)

ws.write_formula(7, 0, '=SUM(A1:A6)')

wb.close()

The example writes the SUM formula into a cell, which calculates the sum of values of the A column.

In this tutorial, we have worked with the xlsxwriter library. We have created some basic Excel files with xlsxwriter.

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