last modified October 19, 2023
In this article we show how to work with strings in Julia.
In Julia, a string is a finite sequence of characters. It is a data type which stores a sequence of data values, usually bytes, in which elements usually stand for characters according to a character encoding.
The built-in concrete type used for strings is
String. It supports
the full range of Unicode characters via the UTF-8 encoding.
When a string appears literally in the source code, it is known as a string literal. The string literal is delimited by two double quotes (e.g. "an old falcon").
Strings in Julia are immutable.
Julia string simple example
The following is a simple Julia string example.
word::String = "falcon" println(word) word2 = "hawk" println(word2)
We define two strings and print them.
word::String = "falcon" println(word)
We explicitly define the type for the
word variable. The type
word2 = "hawk" println(word2)
In the second case, the type is inferred by Julia.
$ julia main.jl falcon hawk
Julia string contatenation
Julia uses the
* character to concatenate strings.
println("an" * " old " * "falcon") n = 4 println("There are " * string(n) * " hawks")
In the program, we build two messages by concatenating strings.
println("an" * " old " * "falcon")
The three strings are added together using the
n = 4 println("There are " * string(n) * " hawks")
In the second case, we also have an integer. The integer is turned into a string
with the help of the
$ julia main.jl an old falcon There are 4 hawks
Julia string to integer
int built-in function converts a string to an integer.
vals = ("2", 1, "4", 6, "11") a, b, c, d, e = vals sum = parse(Int16, a) + b + parse(Int16, c) + d + parse(Int16, e) println(sum)
We have a tuple of values: integers and strings. We want to compute the sum of all values.
a, b, c, d, e = vals
We destructure the tuple into five variables.
sum = parse(Int16, a) + b + parse(Int16, c) + d + parse(Int16, e)
We sum the variables; the strings are converted into integers with
$ julia main.jl 24
Julia string repeat
In the next example we show how to repeat a string in Julia.
println(repeat("falcon ", 5)) println(repeat("hawk ", 3)) println(repeat(["hawk", "falcon"], 3))
Strings can be repeated with the
repeat function. The function
takes a string or an array of strings as the first parameter. The second one is
the count number.
$ julia repeat.jl falcon falcon falcon falcon falcon hawk hawk hawk ["hawk", "falcon", "hawk", "falcon", "hawk", "falcon"]
Julia string interpolation
An interpolated string is a string literal that might contain interpolated
expressions. The $ special character identifies a variable in a string literal
to be expanded to its value. Expressions are placed within
name = "John Doe" age = 34 msg = "$name is $age years old" println(msg) x = 12 y = 11 println("x + y = $(x + y)")
We have two interpolated strings.
msg = "$name is $age years old"
We build a string that contains the contents of two variables:
age. They are preceded with the
$ character. After
the string is expanded, it contains the values of the two variables.
println("x + y = $(x + y)")
Interpolated strings can contain expressions.
$ julia main.jl John Doe is 34 years old x + y = 23
Julia string escape sequences
Escape characters are special characters that perform a specific operation. For instance, the \n characters starts a new line.
println("Three\t bottles of wine") println("He said: \"I love ice skating\"") println("Line 1:\nLine 2:\nLine 3:")
We have an example with escape characters.
println("Three\t bottles of wine")
\t escape character inserts a tab.
println("He said: \"I love ice skating\"")
We insert double qoutes into a string literal by escaping them with \.
println("Line 1:\nLine 2:\nLine 3:")
\n, we create three lines.
$ julia main.jl Three bottles of wine He said: "I love ice skating" Line 1: Line 2: Line 3:
Julia verbatim string
Verbatim strings do not interprete escape sequences. They are preceded with the
s1 = raw"deep \t forest" s2 = raw"C:\Users\Admin\Documents" println(s1) println(s2)
In this code example we work with verbatim strings.
s1 = raw"deep \t forest"
\t special character is not interpreted; it is only printed to
s2 = raw"C:\Users\Admin\Documents"
Verbatim strings are convenient when we work with paths.
$ julia main.jl deep \t forest C:\Users\Admin\Documents
The @sprintf macro
We can format a string using the
using Printf name = "John Doe" occupation = "gardener" msg = @sprintf("%s is a %s", name, occupation) println(msg)
The macro is located in the
msg = @sprintf("%s is a %s", name, occupation) println(msg)
We build a message with the
@sprintf macro. The
format specifiers that expect a string value.
$ julia main.jl John Doe is a gardener
In this article we have worked with strings in Julia.