Java H2

last modified July 6, 2020

Java H2 tutorial shows how to do database programming in H2 with Java.

H2 is a relational database management system written in Java. It can be embedded in Java applications or run in the client-server mode. It can be used also in a memory mode.

H2 has a very small footprint. It somes with a browser based management application called H2 Console.

Downloading H2

From the H2's home page, we download the database in a ZIP file.

$ unzip h2-2019-03-13.zip

We unzip the archive.

$ mv h2 ~/bin/

We move the installation directory to a destination of our choice.

Java H2 memory example

In the first example, we connect to an in-memory H2 database. The H2 server does not need to run for this example.

package com.zetcode;

import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.logging.Level;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class JavaSeH2Memory {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        var url = "jdbc:h2:mem:";

        try (var con = DriverManager.getConnection(url);
             var stm = con.createStatement();
             var rs = stm.executeQuery("SELECT 1+1")) {

            if (rs.next()) {


        } catch (SQLException ex) {

            var lgr = Logger.getLogger(JavaSeH2Memory.class.getName());
            lgr.log(Level.SEVERE, ex.getMessage(), ex);

The example connects to an H2 in-memory database and executes a query. An in-memory private database for one connection only is created. The database is closed when the connection to the database is closed.

var url = "jdbc:h2:mem:";

This URL is for H2 database in memory mode.

Creating a database

In the older versions of H2, a database was automatically created if it did not exist. Due to security reasons this is not possible anymore. We need to create a database before connecting to it.

$ java -cp bin/h2-1.4.199.jar org.h2.tools.Shell

Welcome to H2 Shell 1.4.199 (2019-03-13)
Exit with Ctrl+C
[Enter]   jdbc:h2:mem:testdb
URL       jdbc:h2:~/tmp/h2dbs/testdb
[Enter]   org.h2.Driver
[Enter]   sa

A new database called testdb can be created with the shell tool.

Starting H2 server

Now we are going to start H2 server.

$ java -jar bin/h2-1.4.199.jar -baseDir ~/tmp/h2dbs
Web Console server running at (only local connections)
TCP server running at tcp:// (only local connections)
PG server running at pg:// (only local connections)

We move to the installation directory and run H2 in server mode. The command starts a web console application and two local connections; the PG server is a PostgreSQL compatibility mode with PostgreSQL protocol. The directory where the database files are generated is set to ~/tmp/h2dbs, where ~ stands for home directory.

We go to the web console and connect to the testdb database with the jdbc:h2:~/tmp/h2dbs/testdb URL. The database is generated in ~/tmp/h2dbs directory. The default user is sa with no password set.


While in the console, we set a password for user sa with the ALTER USER statement.

INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Audi', 52642);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Mercedes', 57127);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Skoda', 9000);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Volvo', 29000);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Bentley', 350000);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Citroen', 21000);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Hummer', 41400);
INSERT INTO cars(name, price) VALUES('Volkswagen', 21600);

This is the SQL to create the cars table. We use this table in one example.

H2 Maven dependency



This is the Maven dependency for H2.

Java H2 Server example

For this example, we start the H2 server with:

$ java -jar bin/h2-1.4.199.jar -baseDir ~/tmp/h2dbs
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"








The POM file contains the H2 Database Engine and the exec-maven-plugin for executing Java classes with Maven.

package com.zetcode;

import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.logging.Level;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class JavaSeH2Server {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        var url = "jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost:9092/~/tmp/h2dbs/testdb";
        var user = "sa";
        var passwd = "s$cret";

        var query = "SELECT * FROM cars";

        try (var con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, user, passwd);
             var st = con.createStatement();
             var rs = st.executeQuery(query)) {

            while (rs.next()) {

                System.out.printf("%d %s %d%n", rs.getInt(1),
                        rs.getString(2), rs.getInt(3));

        } catch (SQLException ex) {

            var lgr = Logger.getLogger(JavaSeH2Server.class.getName());
            lgr.log(Level.SEVERE, ex.getMessage(), ex);

The example connects to the H2 server and executes a query. It returns all rows from the cars table.

var url = "jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost:9092/~/tmp/h2dbs/testdb";

This is the URL for connecting to the H2 Server's testdb database.

$ mvn compile
$ mvn -q exec:java
1 Audi 52642
2 Mercedes 57127
3 Skoda 9000
4 Volvo 29000
5 Bentley 350000
6 Citroen 21000
7 Hummer 41400
8 Volkswagen 21600

We compile and run the program.

Java H2 tutorial showed how to program H2 database in Java.

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