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Application skeletons in wxPython

In this section, we will create some application skeletons. Our scripts will work out the interface but will not implement the functionality. The goal is to show, how several well known GUI interfaces could be done in wxPython.

File Manager

File Hunter is a skeleton of a file manager. It copies the lookout of the Krusader, a file manager available on Unix systems. If we double click on the splitter widget, it will divide the File Hunter into two parts with the same width. The same happens if we resize the main window.

File manager
Figure: Filemanager.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import wx
import os
import time


ID_BUTTON=100
ID_EXIT=200
ID_SPLITTER=300

class MyListCtrl(wx.ListCtrl):
    def __init__(self, parent, id):
        wx.ListCtrl.__init__(self, parent, id, style=wx.LC_REPORT)

        files = os.listdir('.')
        images = ['images/empty.png', 'images/folder.png', 'images/source_py.png', 
		'images/image.png', 'images/pdf.png', 'images/up16.png']

        self.InsertColumn(0, 'Name')
        self.InsertColumn(1, 'Ext')
        self.InsertColumn(2, 'Size', wx.LIST_FORMAT_RIGHT)
        self.InsertColumn(3, 'Modified')

        self.SetColumnWidth(0, 220)
        self.SetColumnWidth(1, 70)
        self.SetColumnWidth(2, 100)
        self.SetColumnWidth(3, 420)

        self.il = wx.ImageList(16, 16)
        for i in images:
            self.il.Add(wx.Bitmap(i))
        self.SetImageList(self.il, wx.IMAGE_LIST_SMALL)

        j = 1
        self.InsertStringItem(0, '..')
        self.SetItemImage(0, 5)

        for i in files:
            (name, ext) = os.path.splitext(i)
            ex = ext[1:]
            size = os.path.getsize(i)
            sec = os.path.getmtime(i)
            self.InsertStringItem(j, name)
            self.SetStringItem(j, 1, ex)
            self.SetStringItem(j, 2, str(size) + ' B')
            self.SetStringItem(j, 3, time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M', 
		time.localtime(sec)))

            if os.path.isdir(i):
                self.SetItemImage(j, 1)
            elif ex == 'py':
                self.SetItemImage(j, 2)
            elif ex == 'jpg':
                self.SetItemImage(j, 3)
            elif ex == 'pdf':
                self.SetItemImage(j, 4)
            else:
                self.SetItemImage(j, 0)

            if (j % 2) == 0:
                self.SetItemBackgroundColour(j, '#e6f1f5')
            j = j + 1


class FileHunter(wx.Frame):
    def __init__(self, parent, id, title):
        wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent, -1, title)

        self.splitter = wx.SplitterWindow(self, ID_SPLITTER, style=wx.SP_BORDER)
        self.splitter.SetMinimumPaneSize(50)

        p1 = MyListCtrl(self.splitter, -1)
        p2 = MyListCtrl(self.splitter, -1)
        self.splitter.SplitVertically(p1, p2)

        self.Bind(wx.EVT_SIZE, self.OnSize)
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_SPLITTER_DCLICK, self.OnDoubleClick, id=ID_SPLITTER)

        filemenu= wx.Menu()
        filemenu.Append(ID_EXIT,"E&xit"," Terminate the program")
        editmenu = wx.Menu()
        netmenu = wx.Menu()
        showmenu = wx.Menu()
        configmenu = wx.Menu()
        helpmenu = wx.Menu()

        menuBar = wx.MenuBar()
        menuBar.Append(filemenu,"&File")
        menuBar.Append(editmenu, "&Edit")
        menuBar.Append(netmenu, "&Net")
        menuBar.Append(showmenu, "&Show")
        menuBar.Append(configmenu, "&Config")
        menuBar.Append(helpmenu, "&Help")
        self.SetMenuBar(menuBar)
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_MENU, self.OnExit, id=ID_EXIT)

        tb = self.CreateToolBar( wx.TB_HORIZONTAL | wx.NO_BORDER | 
		wx.TB_FLAT | wx.TB_TEXT)
        tb.AddSimpleTool(10, wx.Bitmap('images/previous.png'), 'Previous')
        tb.AddSimpleTool(20, wx.Bitmap('images/up.png'), 'Up one directory')
        tb.AddSimpleTool(30, wx.Bitmap('images/home.png'), 'Home')
        tb.AddSimpleTool(40, wx.Bitmap('images/refresh.png'), 'Refresh')
        tb.AddSeparator()
        tb.AddSimpleTool(50, wx.Bitmap('images/write.png'), 'Editor')
        tb.AddSimpleTool(60, wx.Bitmap('images/terminal.png'), 'Terminal')
        tb.AddSeparator()
        tb.AddSimpleTool(70, wx.Bitmap('images/help.png'), 'Help')
        tb.Realize()

        self.sizer2 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)

        button1 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 1, "F3 View")
        button2 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 2, "F4 Edit")
        button3 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 3, "F5 Copy")
        button4 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 4, "F6 Move")
        button5 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 5, "F7 Mkdir")
        button6 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 6, "F8 Delete")
        button7 = wx.Button(self, ID_BUTTON + 7, "F9 Rename")
        button8 = wx.Button(self, ID_EXIT, "F10 Quit")

        self.sizer2.Add(button1, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button2, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button3, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button4, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button5, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button6, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button7, 1, wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer2.Add(button8, 1, wx.EXPAND)

        self.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnExit, id=ID_EXIT)

        self.sizer = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        self.sizer.Add(self.splitter,1,wx.EXPAND)
        self.sizer.Add(self.sizer2,0,wx.EXPAND)
        self.SetSizer(self.sizer)

        size = wx.DisplaySize()
        self.SetSize(size)

        self.sb = self.CreateStatusBar()
        self.sb.SetStatusText(os.getcwd())
        self.Center()
        self.Show(True)


    def OnExit(self,e):
        self.Close(True)

    def OnSize(self, event):
        size = self.GetSize()
        self.splitter.SetSashPosition(size.x / 2)
        self.sb.SetStatusText(os.getcwd())
        event.Skip()


    def OnDoubleClick(self, event):
        size =  self.GetSize()
        self.splitter.SetSashPosition(size.x / 2)

app = wx.App(0)
FileHunter(None, -1, 'File Hunter')
app.MainLoop()

SpreadSheet

Gnumeric, KSpread, and OpenOffice Calc are famous spreadsheet applications available on Unix. The following example shows a skeleton of a spreadsheet application in wxPython.

Applications have their own life. This is also true for educational scripts. After upgrading to wx.Python 2.8.1.1 I realized that the spreadsheet example does not work. The following line was the problem.

toolbar2.AddControl(wx.StaticText(toolbar2, -1, '  ')) 

Of course, we cannot add a widget to itself. But the previous version of the toolkit was happy with it. Under the current version it did not work, signalising a problem. It might or might not work on the Mac and Windows. Originally, I wanted to add some space between the combo boxes. Under the new version of the toolkit it stopped to work either so I dropped the line.

Besides fixing this bug, I also cleaned the code a bit and replaced the depreciated methods (AddSimpleTool()) of the toolbar with the new ones (AddLabelTool()).

Spreadsheet
Figure: Spreadsheet
#!/usr/bin/python

# spreadsheet.py

from wx.lib import sheet
import wx


class MySheet(sheet.CSheet):
    def __init__(self, parent):
        sheet.CSheet.__init__(self, parent)
        self.row = self.col = 0
        self.SetNumberRows(55)
        self.SetNumberCols(25)

        for i in range(55):
            self.SetRowSize(i, 20)

    def OnGridSelectCell(self, event):
        self.row, self.col = event.GetRow(), event.GetCol()
        control = self.GetParent().GetParent().position
        value =  self.GetColLabelValue(self.col) + self.GetRowLabelValue(self.row)
        control.SetValue(value)
        event.Skip()

class Newt(wx.Frame):
    def __init__(self, parent, id, title):
        wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent, -1, title, size = (550, 500))

        fonts = ['Times New Roman', 'Times', 'Courier', 'Courier New', 'Helvetica',
                'Sans', 'verdana', 'utkal', 'aakar', 'Arial']
        font_sizes = ['10', '11', '12', '14', '16']

        box = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        menuBar = wx.MenuBar()

        menu1 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu1, '&File')
        menu2 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu2, '&Edit')
        menu3 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu3, '&Edit')
        menu4 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu4, '&Insert')
        menu5 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu5, 'F&ormat')
        menu6 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu6, '&Tools')
        menu7 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu7, '&Data')
        menu8 = wx.Menu()
        menuBar.Append(menu8, '&Help')

        self.SetMenuBar(menuBar)

        toolbar1 = wx.ToolBar(self, -1, style= wx.TB_HORIZONTAL)
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_new.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_open.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_save.png'))
        toolbar1.AddSeparator()
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_cut.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_copy.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_paste.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '',  wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_delete.png'))
        toolbar1.AddSeparator()
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_undo.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_redo.png'))
        toolbar1.AddSeparator()
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/incr22.png'))
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/decr22.png'))
        toolbar1.AddSeparator()
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/chart.xpm'))
        toolbar1.AddSeparator()
        toolbar1.AddLabelTool(-1, '',  wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_exit.png'))

        toolbar1.Realize()

        toolbar2 = wx.ToolBar(self, wx.TB_HORIZONTAL | wx.TB_TEXT)

        self.position = wx.TextCtrl(toolbar2)
        font = wx.ComboBox(toolbar2, -1, value = 'Times', choices=fonts, size=(100, -1),
                style=wx.CB_DROPDOWN)
        font_height = wx.ComboBox(toolbar2, -1, value = '10',  choices=font_sizes,
                size=(50, -1), style=wx.CB_DROPDOWN)

        toolbar2.AddControl(self.position)
        toolbar2.AddControl(font)
        toolbar2.AddControl(font_height)
        toolbar2.AddSeparator()
        bold = wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_text_bold.png')
        toolbar2.AddCheckTool(-1, bold)
        italic = wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_text_italic.png')
        toolbar2.AddCheckTool(-1, italic)
        under = wx.Bitmap('icons/stock_text_underline.png')
        toolbar2.AddCheckTool(-1, under)
        toolbar2.AddSeparator()
        toolbar2.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/text_align_left.png'))
        toolbar2.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/text_align_center.png'))
        toolbar2.AddLabelTool(-1, '', wx.Bitmap('icons/text_align_right.png'))

        box.Add(toolbar1, border=5)
        box.Add((5,5) , 0)
        box.Add(toolbar2)
        box.Add((5,10) , 0)

        toolbar2.Realize()
        self.SetSizer(box)
        notebook = wx.Notebook(self, -1, style=wx.RIGHT)

        sheet1 = MySheet(notebook)
        sheet2 = MySheet(notebook)
        sheet3 = MySheet(notebook)
        sheet1.SetFocus()

        notebook.AddPage(sheet1, 'Sheet1')
        notebook.AddPage(sheet2, 'Sheet2')
        notebook.AddPage(sheet3, 'Sheet3')

        box.Add(notebook, 1, wx.EXPAND)

        self.CreateStatusBar()
        self.Centre()
        self.Show(True)

app = wx.App()
Newt(None, -1, 'SpreadSheet')
app.MainLoop()

Much of the code builds the menus and toolbars. Besides, it is quite a simple example.

class MySheet(sheet.CSheet):
    def __init__(self, parent):
        sheet.CSheet.__init__(self, parent)
        self.row = self.col = 0
        self.SetNumberRows(55)
        self.SetNumberCols(25)

        for i in range(55):
            self.SetRowSize(i, 20)

The MySheet class inherits from the CSheet class, which is located in thel wx.lib module. It is basically a wx.Grid widget with some additional functionality. We set the row size to 20px. This is purely for aesthetical purpose.

control = self.GetParent().GetParent().position

The position text control shows the selected cell of the grid widget. It is the first widget of the second toolbar. Being inside a MySheet class, we need to get a reference to the text control, which is defined in the Newt class. MySheet is a child of the notebook. And notebook is a child of Newt. So we manage to get to the position text control by calling the GetParent() method twice.

notebook = wx.Notebook(self, -1, style=wx.RIGHT)

This is a bug. Under current version of wxPython (on GTK+), right is bottom and bottom is right.

Player

The following example is a skeleton of a typical video player.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import wx


class Example(wx.Frame):
           
    def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
        super(Example, self).__init__(*args, **kw) 
        
        self.InitUI()
        
    def InitUI(self):   

        self.CreateMenuBar()
    
        panel = wx.Panel(self)

        pnl1 = wx.Panel(self)
        pnl1.SetBackgroundColour(wx.BLACK)
        pnl2 = wx.Panel(self)        

        slider1 = wx.Slider(pnl2, value=18, minValue=0, maxValue=1000)
        pause = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('pause.png'))
        play  = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('play.png'))
        forw  = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('forw.png'))
        back  = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('back.png'))
        vol = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('volume.png'))
        slider2 = wx.Slider(pnl2, value=1, minValue=0, maxValue=100, 
            size=(120, -1))

        vbox = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        hbox1 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
        hbox2 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)

        hbox1.Add(slider1, proportion=1)
        hbox2.Add(pause)
        hbox2.Add(play, flag=wx.RIGHT, border=5)
        hbox2.Add(forw, flag=wx.LEFT, border=5)
        hbox2.Add(back)
        hbox2.Add((-1, -1), proportion=1)
        hbox2.Add(vol)
        hbox2.Add(slider2, flag=wx.TOP|wx.LEFT, border=5)

        vbox.Add(hbox1, flag=wx.EXPAND|wx.BOTTOM, border=10)
        vbox.Add(hbox2, proportion=1, flag=wx.EXPAND)
        pnl2.SetSizer(vbox)

        sizer = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        sizer.Add(pnl1, proportion=1, flag=wx.EXPAND)
        sizer.Add(pnl2, flag=wx.EXPAND|wx.BOTTOM|wx.TOP, border=10)

        self.SetMinSize((350, 300))
        self.CreateStatusBar()
        self.SetSizer(sizer)

        self.SetSize((350, 200))
        self.SetTitle('Player')
        self.Centre()
        self.Show(True)          
        
    def CreateMenuBar(self):
        
        menubar = wx.MenuBar()
        filem = wx.Menu()
        play = wx.Menu()
        view = wx.Menu()
        tools = wx.Menu()
        favorites = wx.Menu()
        help = wx.Menu()
        
        filem.Append(wx.ID_ANY, '&quit', 'Quit application')

        menubar.Append(filem, '&File')
        menubar.Append(play, '&Play')
        menubar.Append(view, '&View')
        menubar.Append(tools, '&Tools')
        menubar.Append(favorites, 'F&avorites')
        menubar.Append(help, '&Help')

        self.SetMenuBar(menubar)        
                      
def main():
    
    ex = wx.App()
    Example(None)
    ex.MainLoop()    

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()          

To build the interface, we have used bitmap buttons, sliders, panels, and a menubar.

pnl1 = wx.Panel(self)
pnl1.SetBackgroundColour(wx.BLACK)

The main area of the application is occupied by a panel with a black background.

slider1 = wx.Slider(pnl2, value=18, minValue=0, maxValue=1000)

The wx.Slider is used to show the progress of the film.

pause = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('pause.png'))
play  = wx.BitmapButton(pnl2, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('play.png'))

Bitmap buttons are used for control buttons.

self.SetMinSize((350, 300))

Here we set the minimum size of the player. It does not make much sense to shrink the window below some value.

Player
Figure: Player

Browser

These days internet browsers are one of the most important applications in the IT world. We mimic the look of a Firefox in our script.

Browser
Figure: Browser.py
#!/usr/bin/python

import wx
from wx.lib.buttons import GenBitmapTextButton

class Browser(wx.Frame):
    def __init__(self, parent, id, title):
        wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent, id, title, size=(450, 400))
        panel = wx.Panel(self, -1)
        panel.SetBackgroundColour('WHITE')

        menubar = wx.MenuBar()
        file = wx.Menu()
        file.Append(1, '&Quit', '')
        edit = wx.Menu()
        view = wx.Menu()
        go = wx.Menu()
        bookmarks = wx.Menu()
        tools = wx.Menu()
        help = wx.Menu()

        menubar.Append(file, '&File')
        menubar.Append(edit, '&Edit')
        menubar.Append(view, '&View')
        menubar.Append(go, '&Go')
        menubar.Append(bookmarks, '&Bookmarks')
        menubar.Append(tools, '&Tools')
        menubar.Append(help, '&Help')

        self.SetMenuBar(menubar)

        vbox = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        hbox1 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
        hbox2 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
        toolbar1 = wx.Panel(panel, -1, size=(-1, 40))
        back = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/back.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        forward = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/forward.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        refresh = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/refresh.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        stop = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/stop.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        home = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/home.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        address = wx.ComboBox(toolbar1, -1, size=(50, -1))
        go = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar1, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/go.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        text = wx.TextCtrl(toolbar1, -1, size=(150, -1))

        hbox1.Add(back)
        hbox1.Add(forward)
        hbox1.Add(refresh)
        hbox1.Add(stop)
        hbox1.Add(home)
        hbox1.Add(address, 1, wx.TOP, 4)
        hbox1.Add(go, 0, wx.TOP | wx.LEFT, 4)
        hbox1.Add(text, 0, wx.TOP | wx.RIGHT, 4)

        vbox.Add(toolbar1, 0, wx.EXPAND)
        line = wx.StaticLine(panel)
        vbox.Add(line, 0, wx.EXPAND)

        toolbar2 = wx.Panel(panel, -1, size=(-1, 30))
        bookmark1 = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar2, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/love.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        bookmark2 = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar2, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/books.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        bookmark3 = wx.BitmapButton(toolbar2, -1, wx.Bitmap('icons/sound.png'), 
                style=wx.NO_BORDER)
        hbox2.Add(bookmark1, flag=wx.RIGHT, border=5)
        hbox2.Add(bookmark2, flag=wx.RIGHT, border=5)
        hbox2.Add(bookmark3)
        toolbar2.SetSizer(hbox2)
        vbox.Add(toolbar2, 0, wx.EXPAND)
        line = wx.StaticLine(panel)
        vbox.Add(line, 0, wx.EXPAND)

        panel.SetSizer(vbox)

        self.CreateStatusBar()
        self.Centre()
        self.Show(True)

app = wx.App(0)
Browser(None, -1, 'Browser')
app.MainLoop()

The question was, how to create a sizeable combo box that is used in both Firefox and Opera? We cannot use a wx.Toolbar. It is not possible to create such a functionality with wx.Toolbar. So we must do a workaround.

toolbar1 = wx.Panel(panel, -1, size=(-1, 40))

The trick is simple. We create a plain wx.Panel.

hbox1 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
...
hbox1.Add(back)
hbox1.Add(forward)
hbox1.Add(refresh)

We create a horizontal sizer and add all necessary buttons.

hbox1.Add(address, 1, wx.TOP, 4)

Then we add the combo box to the sizer. This kind of combo box is usually called an address bar. Notice that it is the only widget that has the proportion set to 1. This was necessary to make it resizable.

The second toolbar was created in a similar way. The toolbars are separated by a line. First I thought, it was some kind of a panel border. I tested all possible borders, but it wasn't quite what I expected.

line = wx.StaticLine(panel)

Then I suddently got it. It is a simple static line!

Sometimes, we must create a solution, for which we do not have a suitable widget. By using simple common sense, we can easily find a way.

In this part of the wxPython tutorial we have created some application skeletons.