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wxPython Gripts

In this section we will show some small, complete scripts. These graphical scripts or "gripts" will demonstrate various areas in programming.

We present three gripts. The first will send an email message. The second will connect to the anonymous ftp account and display a connected or disconnected image in the statusbar. The final one will create a small puzzle game.

Tom

Tom is a simple script that sends an email.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-


import wx
import smtplib

class Example(wx.Dialog):
    
    def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
        super(Example, self).__init__(*args, **kw)
        
        self.InitUI()
        
    def InitUI(self):
        
        pnl = wx.Panel(self)
        
        vbox = wx.BoxSizer(wx.VERTICAL)
        hbox1 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
        hbox2 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)
        hbox3 = wx.BoxSizer(wx.HORIZONTAL)

        st1 = wx.StaticText(pnl, label='From')
        st2 = wx.StaticText(pnl, label='To ')
        st3 = wx.StaticText(pnl, label='Subject')

        self.tc1 = wx.TextCtrl(pnl, size=(180, -1))
        self.tc2 = wx.TextCtrl(pnl, size=(180, -1))
        self.tc3 = wx.TextCtrl(pnl, size=(180, -1))

        self.tc = wx.TextCtrl(pnl, style=wx.TE_MULTILINE)
        button_send = wx.Button(pnl, label='Send')

        hbox1.Add(st1, flag=wx.LEFT, border=10)
        hbox1.Add(self.tc1, flag=wx.LEFT, border=35)
        hbox2.Add(st2, flag=wx.LEFT, border=10)
        hbox2.Add(self.tc2, flag=wx.LEFT, border=50)
        hbox3.Add(st3, flag=wx.LEFT, border=10)
        hbox3.Add(self.tc3, flag=wx.LEFT, border=20)
        vbox.Add(hbox1, flag=wx.TOP, border=10)
        vbox.Add(hbox2, flag=wx.TOP, border=10)
        vbox.Add(hbox3, flag=wx.TOP, border=10)
        vbox.Add(self.tc, proportion=1, flag=wx.EXPAND | wx.TOP | 
            wx.RIGHT | wx.LEFT, border=15)
        vbox.Add(button_send, flag=wx.ALIGN_CENTER | wx.TOP | 
            wx.BOTTOM, border=20)

        self.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnSend, button_send)
        pnl.SetSizer(vbox)

        self.SetSize((400, 420))
        self.SetTitle('Tom')
        self.Centre()
        self.ShowModal()
        self.Destroy()

    def OnSend(self, e):
        
        sender = self.tc1.GetValue()
        recipient = self.tc2.GetValue()
        subject = self.tc3.GetValue()
        text = self.tc.GetValue()
        header = 'From: %s\r\nTo: %s\r\nSubject: %s\r\n\r\n' % 
            (sender, recipient, subject)
        message = header + text

        try:
            
            server = smtplib.SMTP('mail.chello.sk')
            server.sendmail(sender, recipient, message)
            server.quit()
            dlg = wx.MessageDialog(self, 'Email was successfully sent', 'Success', 
                wx.OK | wx.ICON_INFORMATION)
            dlg.ShowModal()
            dlg.Destroy()

        except smtplib.SMTPException, error:
            
            dlg = wx.MessageDialog(self, 'Failed to send email', 
                'Error', wx.OK | wx.ICON_ERROR)
            dlg.ShowModal()
            dlg.Destroy()


def main():
    
    ex = wx.App()
    Example(None)
    ex.MainLoop()    


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()  

We have a dialog window with from, to and subject text controls and a message text control. After pushing the send button the email is sent to the recipient.

import smtplib

For working with emails we need to import smtp module. This module is part of the Python language.

header = 'From: %s\r\nTo: %s\r\nSubject: %s\r\n\r\n' % 
    (sender, recipient, subject)

From, To and Subject options must be separated by carriedge return and newline as shown here. This is requested by RFC 821 norm. So we must follow it.

server = smtplib.SMTP('mail.chello.sk')
server.sendmail(sender, recipient, message)
server.quit()

Next we create an SMTP connection. Here you specify your settings. Each ISP gives you the name of the pop and smtp servers. In my case, 'mail.chello.sk' is a name for both. A mail is sent by calling the sendmail() method. Finally, we quit the connection with the quit() method.

Tom
Figure: Tom

Kika

Kika is a gript that connects to an ftp site. If a login is successfull, Kika shows a connected icon on the statusbar. Otherwise, a disconnected icon is displayed. We use an ftplib module from the Python standard library. If you do not have an ftp account, you can try to login to some anonymous ftp sites.

#!/usr/bin/python


from ftplib import FTP, all_errors
import wx


class MyStatusBar(wx.StatusBar):
    
    def __init__(self, parent):
        super(MyStatusBar, self).__init__(parent)

        self.SetFieldsCount(2)
        self.SetStatusText('Welcome to Kika', 0)
        self.SetStatusWidths([-1, 50])
        
        self.icon = wx.StaticBitmap(self, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('disconnected.png'))
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_SIZE, self.OnSize)
        self.PlaceIcon()

    def PlaceIcon(self):
        
        rect = self.GetFieldRect(1)
        self.icon.SetPosition((rect.x+5, rect.y+1))

    def OnSize(self, e):
                
        e.Skip()
        self.PlaceIcon()
        

class Example(wx.Frame):
           
    def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
        super(Example, self).__init__(*args, **kw) 
        
        self.InitUI()
        
    def InitUI(self):    

        wx.StaticText(self, label='Ftp site', pos=(10, 20))
        wx.StaticText(self, label='Login', pos=(10, 60))
        wx.StaticText(self, label='Password', pos=(10, 100))

        self.ftpsite = wx.TextCtrl(self, pos=(110, 15), 
            size=(120, -1))
        self.login = wx.TextCtrl(self,  pos=(110, 55), 
            size=(120, -1))
        self.password = wx.TextCtrl(self, pos=(110, 95), 
            size=(120, -1), style=wx.TE_PASSWORD)

        self.ftp = None

        con = wx.Button(self, label='Connect', pos=(10, 160))
        discon = wx.Button(self, label='DisConnect', pos=(120, 160))

        self.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnConnect, con)
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnDisConnect, discon)
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_MAXIMIZE, self.OnMaximize) 
        self.Bind(wx.EVT_SHOW, self.OnShown)

        self.sb = MyStatusBar(self)
        self.SetStatusBar(self.sb)
        
        self.SetSize((250, 270))
        self.SetTitle('Kika')
        self.Centre()
        self.Show()
        
 
    def OnShown(self, e):
        
        if self.sb:
            self.sb.PlaceIcon() 
 
    def OnMaximize(self, e):
        
        self.sb.PlaceIcon()             

    def OnConnect(self, e):
        
        if not self.ftp:
            
            ftpsite = self.ftpsite.GetValue()
            login = self.login.GetValue()
            password = self.password.GetValue()

            try:
                self.ftp = FTP(ftpsite)
                var = self.ftp.login(login, password)
                    
                self.sb.SetStatusText('User connected')
                self.sb.icon.SetBitmap(wx.Bitmap('connected.png'))

            except AttributeError:

                self.sb.SetStatusText('Incorrect params')
                self.ftp = None

            except all_errors, err:
                
                self.sb.SetStatusText(str(err))
                self.ftp = None

    def OnDisConnect(self, e):
        
        if self.ftp:
            
            self.ftp.quit()
            self.ftp = None
            
            self.sb.SetStatusText('User disconnected')
            self.sb.icon.SetBitmap(wx.Bitmap('disconnected.png'))


def main():
    
    ex = wx.App()
    Example(None)
    ex.MainLoop()    


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()   

In the code example, we will connect to an ftp site and show connected or disconnected icons in the statusbar.

from ftplib import FTP, all_errors

We use the standard ftplib Python module.

self.SetFieldsCount(2)
self.SetStatusText('Welcome to Kika', 0)
self.SetStatusWidths([-1, 50])

Our custom statusbar will have two fields. A welcome message is shown in the first field of the statusbar with the SetStatusText() method. The SetStatusWidths() method arranges the width for the status fields. The second field has a fixed width, the first one takes the rest of the statusbar's width.

def PlaceIcon(self):
    
    rect = self.GetFieldRect(1)
    self.icon.SetPosition((rect.x+5, rect.y+1))

The PlaceIcon() method positions the icon on the statusbar. With the GetFieldRect() method we determine the size of the second field of the statusbar. Later we place the icon using the SetPosition() method.

def OnSize(self, e):
            
    e.Skip()
    self.PlaceIcon()

Notice that each time the window is resized, we must position our icon to a new place.

self.Bind(wx.EVT_MAXIMIZE, self.OnMaximize) 
self.Bind(wx.EVT_SHOW, self.OnShown)

We also react to EVT_MAXIMIZE and EVT_SHOW events. In their event handlers, we replace the icon on the statusbar.

try:
    self.ftp = FTP(ftpsite)
    var = self.ftp.login(login, password)
        
    self.sb.SetStatusText('User connected')
    self.sb.icon.SetBitmap(wx.Bitmap('connected.png'))

We login to the provided ftp site. A connected icon is shown in the statusbar.

def OnDisConnect(self, e):
    
    if self.ftp:
        
        self.ftp.quit()
        self.ftp = None
        
        self.sb.SetStatusText('User disconnected')
        self.sb.icon.SetBitmap(wx.Bitmap('disconnected.png'))

In the OnDisConnect() method, we quit the connection to the ftp site, if there is any. The statusbar will show a disconnected icon.

Kika
Figure: Kika

Puzzle

In this gript, we introduce a puzzle game. We have an image of a Sid character from the Ice Age movie. The goal is to form the picture.

$ convert sid.png -crop 120x90 sid%d.png
$ ls
sid0.png  sid2.png  sid4.png  sid6.png  sid8.png
sid1.png  sid3.png  sid5.png  sid7.png  sid.png

ImageMagick program can be used to easily slice an image to smaller images. If your image is 360x270, the above command will crop the image into nine parts.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-


import wx
import random

class Example(wx.Dialog):
    
    def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
        super(Example, self).__init__(*args, **kw)
        
        self.InitUI()
        
    def InitUI(self):
        
        images = ['sid1.png', 'sid2.png', 'sid3.png', 'sid4.png', 
                'sid5.png', 'sid6.png', 'sid7.png', 'sid8.png']

        self.pos = [ [0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8] ]

        self.sizer = wx.GridSizer(3, 3, 0, 0)

        numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
        random.shuffle(numbers)

        for i in numbers:
            
                btn = wx.BitmapButton(self, i, wx.Bitmap(images[i]))
                btn.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnPressButton, btn)
                self.sizer.Add(btn)

        self.empty = wx.BitmapButton(self, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('empty.png'))
        self.empty.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnPressButton, self.empty)
        self.sizer.Add(self.empty)

        self.SetSizerAndFit(self.sizer)
        self.SetTitle('Puzzle')
        self.Centre()
        self.ShowModal()
        self.Destroy()

    def OnPressButton(self, e):
        
        btn = e.GetEventObject()
        
        width = self.empty.GetSize().x
        height = self.empty.GetSize().y

        btnX = btn.GetPosition().x
        btnY = btn.GetPosition().y
        emptyX = self.empty.GetPosition().x
        emptyY = self.empty.GetPosition().y
    
        
        if (((btnX == emptyX) and (emptyY - btnY) == height)
          or ((btnX == emptyX) and (emptyY - btnY) == -height)
          or ((btnY == emptyY) and (emptyX - btnX) == width)
          or ((btnY == emptyY) and (emptyX - btnX) == -width)):
                 
            self.ExchangeImages(btn)

            
    def ExchangeImages(self, btn):
        
        bmp1 = self.empty.GetBitmapLabel()
        bmp2 = btn.GetBitmapLabel()
        
        self.empty.SetBitmapLabel(bmp2)
        btn.SetBitmapLabel(bmp1)
        
        self.empty = btn        


def main():
    
    ex = wx.App()
    Example(None)
    ex.MainLoop()    


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()  

The image is sliced into 9 subimages. 8 subimages are used in the program. One empty image is used as well.

images = ['sid1.png', 'sid2.png', 'sid3.png', 'sid4.png', 
                'sid5.png', 'sid6.png', 'sid7.png', 'sid8.png']

These are the images, that will be shown in button widgets.

self.sizer = wx.GridSizer(3, 3, 0, 0)

For this gript, wx.GridSizer fits ideally.

numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
random.shuffle(numbers)

We have eight numbers. Those numbers are shuffled so that we have a random number order. Each time we start the gript, we will have a different order of bitmaps.

for i in numbers:
    
        btn = wx.BitmapButton(self, i, wx.Bitmap(images[i]))
        btn.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnPressButton, btn)
        self.sizer.Add(btn)

In this for loop, we create 8 bitmap buttons with the provided images. To each button an event handler is attached.

self.empty = wx.BitmapButton(self, bitmap=wx.Bitmap('empty.png'))
self.empty.Bind(wx.EVT_BUTTON, self.OnPressButton, self.empty)
self.sizer.Add(self.empty)

The ninth button displays an empty image. The self.empty variable serves as a pointer to the button, which has an empty image. Buttons will exchange their images so the self.empty variable will point to different buttons over time.

def OnPressButton(self, e):
    
    btn = e.GetEventObject()
    
    width = self.empty.GetSize().x
    height = self.empty.GetSize().y
    ...

When we press a button, the OnPressButton() handler is called. The GetEventObject() method retrieves the event source; it is the button that triggerd the EVT_BUTTON event. We get the width and height of the emtpy button. (All the buttons have the same size). These values will be used to determine the buttons adjacent to the empty button.

btnX = btn.GetPosition().x
btnY = btn.GetPosition().y
emptyX = self.empty.GetPosition().x
emptyY = self.empty.GetPosition().y

We get the x, y coordinates of the currently pressed button and the empty button.

if (((btnX == emptyX) and (emptyY - btnY) == height)
    or ((btnX == emptyX) and (emptyY - btnY) == -height)
    or ((btnY == emptyY) and (emptyX - btnX) == width)
    or ((btnY == emptyY) and (emptyX - btnX) == -width)):
            
    self.ExchangeImages(btn)

Here we find out, if the pressed button is adjacent to the empty button. If true, we call the ExchangeImages() method which will switch the images for the two buttons.

def ExchangeImages(self, btn):
    
    bmp1 = self.empty.GetBitmapLabel()
    bmp2 = btn.GetBitmapLabel()
    
    self.empty.SetBitmapLabel(bmp2)
    btn.SetBitmapLabel(bmp1)
    
    self.empty = btn    

In the ExchangeImages() method, we get the images of the two buttons in question. We switch them. Finally, the self.empty button points to the new button, which has the empty image.

Puzzle
Figure: Puzzle

In this chapter, we have presented three interesting gripts.