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Keywords in Python

In this part of the Python programming tutorial, we will introduce all keywords in Python language.

List of keywords

The following is a list of keywords for the Python programming language.

and       del       from      not       while
as        elif      global    or        with
assert    else      if        pass      yield
break     except    import    print
class     exec      in        raise
continue  finally   is        return 
def       for       lambda    try

Python is a dynamic language. It changes during time. The list of keywords may change in the future.

#!/usr/bin/python

# keywords.py

import sys
import keyword


print "Python version: ", sys.version_info
print "Python keywords: ", keyword.kwlist

This script prints the version of Python and it's actual keyword list.

print keyword

The print keyword is use to print numbers and characters to the console.

#!/usr/bin/python

# tutorial.py

print "*" * 24
print "*" * 24
print "*" * 24
print 
print "\tZetCode"
print 
print "*" * 24 
print "*" * 24
print "*" * 24

The print keyword without any text will line feed.

$ ./tutorial.py 
************************
************************
************************

        ZetCode

************************
************************
************************

Control flow

The while keyword is a basic keyword for controlling the flow of the program. The statements inside the while loop are executed, until the expression evaluates to False.

#!/usr/bin/python

# sum.py

numbers = [22, 34, 12, 32, 4]
sum = 0

i = len(numbers)

while (i != 0):
   i -= 1
   sum = sum + numbers[i]

print "The sum is: ", sum

In our script we want to calculate the sum of all values in the numbers list. We utilize the while loop. We determine the length of the list. The while loop is executed over and over again, until the i is equal to zero. In the body of the loop, we decrement the counter and calculate the sum of values.

The break keyword is used to interrupt the cycle, if needed.

#!/usr/bin/python

# testbreak.py

import random

while (True):
   val = random.randint(1, 30)
   print val,
   if (val ==  22):
      break

In our example, we print random integer numbers. If the number equals to 22, the cycle is interrupted with the break keyword.

$ ./testbreak.py 
14 14 30 16 16 20 23 15 17 22

The next example shows the continue keyword. It is used to interrupt the current cycle, without jumping out of the whole cycle. New cycle will begin.

#!/usr/bin/python

# testcontinue.py

import random

num = 0

while (num < 1000):
   num = num + 1
   if (num % 2) == 0:
      continue
   print num,

In the example we print all numbers smaller than 1000, that cannot be divided by number 2.


The if keyword is the commonest used control flow keyword. The if keyword is used to determine, which statements are going to be executed.

#!/usr/bin/python

# licence.py

age = 17

if age > 18:
   print "Driving licence issued"
else:
   print "Driving licence not permitted"

The if keyword tests if the the person is older than 18. If the condition is met, the driving licence is issued. Otherwise, it is not. The else keyword is optional. The statement after the else keyword is executed, unless the condition is True.

Next we will see, how we can combine the statements using the elif keyword. Stands for else if.

#!/usr/bin/python

# hello.py

name = "Luke"

if name == "Jack":
   print "Hello Jack!"
elif name == "John":
   print "Hello John!"
elif name == "Luke":
   print "Hello Luke!"
else:
   print "Hello there!"

If the first test evaluates to False, we continue with the next one. If none of the tests is True, the else statement is executed.

$ ./hello.py 
Hello Luke!

Output.


The for keyword is used to iterate over items of a collection in order that they appear in the container.

#!/usr/bin/python

# lyrics.py

lyrics = """\
Are you really here or am I dreaming
I can't tell dreams from truth 
for it's been so long since I have seen you
I can hardly remember your face anymore 
"""


for i in lyrics:
   print i,

In the example, we have a lyrics variable having a strophe of a song. We iterate over the text and print the text character by character. The comma in the print statement prevents from printing each character on a new line.

$ ./lyrics.py 
A r e   y o u   r e a l l y   h e r e   o r   a m   I   d r e a m i n g 
I   c a n ' t   t e l l   d r e a m s   f r o m   t r u t h   
f o r   i t ' s   b e e n   s o   l o n g   s i n c e   I   h a v e   s e e n   y o u 
I   c a n   h a r d l y   r e m e m b e r   y o u r   f a c e   a n y m o r e   

This is the output of the script.

Boolean expressions

First we will introduce keywords, that work with boolean values and expressions. is, or, and and not.

#!/usr/bin/python

# objects.py

print None == None
print None is None

print True is True

print [] == []
print [] is []

print "Python" is "Python"

The == operator tests for equality The is keyword tests for object identity. Whether we are talking about the same object. Note, that multiple variables may refer to the same object.

$ ./objects.py 
True
True
True
True
False
True

The output might be surprising for you. In Python language, there is only one None and one True object. That's why True is equal and also identical to True. There is only one truth out there, anyway. The empty list [] is equal to another empty list []. But they are not identical. Python has put them into two different memory locations. They are two distinct objects. Hence the is keyword returns False. On the other hand, "Python" is "Python" returns True. This is because of optimalisation. If two string literals are equal, they have been put to same memory location. A string is an immutable entity. No harm can be done.


The not keyword negates a boolean value.

#!/usr/bin/python

# grades.py

grades = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F"]

grade = "L"

if grade not in grades:
   print "unknown grade"

In our examle we test, whether the grade value is from the list of possible grades.

$ ./grades.py 
unknown grade

The keyword and is used, if all conditions in a boolean expression must be met.

#!/usr/bin/python

# youngmale.py

sex = "M"
age = 26

if age < 55 and sex == "M":
   print "a young male"

In our example, we test, if two conditions are met. The "young male" is printed to the console, if variable age is less than 55 and variable sex is equal to M.

 $ ./youngmale.py 
a young male

The keyword or is used if at least one condition must be met.

#!/usr/bin/python

# name.py

name = "Jack"

if ( name == "Robert" or name == "Frank" or name == "Jack" 
      or name == "George" or name == "Luke"):
   print "This is a male"

If at least one of the expressions is true, the print statement is executed.

When we work with and/or keywords in Python programming language, short circuit evaluation takes place. Short circuit evaluation means that the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression: when the first argument of and evaluates to false, the overall value must be false; and when the first argument of or evaluates to true, the overall value must be true. (wikipedia)

A typical example follows.

#!/usr/bin/python

x = 10
y = 0

if (y != 0 and x/y < 100):
   print "a small value"

The first part of the expression evaluates to False. The second part of the expression is not evaluated. Otherwise, we would get a ZeroDivisionError.

Modules

The following keywords are used with modules. Modules are files, in which we organize our Python code.

The import keyword is used to import other modules into a Python script.

#!/usr/bin/python

# pi.py

import math

print math.pi

We use the import keyword to import the math module into the namespace of our script. We print the PI value.


We use the as keyword, if we want to give a module a different alias.

#!/usr/bin/python

# rand.py

import random as rnd

for i in range(10):
   print rnd.randint(1, 10), 

In this case, we import the random module. We will print ten random integer numbers. We give the random module a different alias, namely rnd. In the script we reference the module with the new alias. Notice, that we cannot name the script random.py or rnd.py. We would get errors.

$ ./rand.py 
1 2 5 10 10 8 2 9 7 2

The from keyword is used for importing a specific variable, class or a function from a module.

#!/usr/bin/python

# testfrom.py

from sys import version

print version

From the sys module, we import the version variable. If we want to print it, we do not need to use the module name. The version variable was imported directly to our namespace and we can reference it directly.

$ ./testfrom.py 
2.5.1 (r251:54863, Mar  7 2008, 03:41:45) 
[GCC 4.1.2 (Ubuntu 4.1.2-0ubuntu4)]

Functions

Here we will describe keywords associated with functions. The def keyword is used to create a new user defined function. Functions are objects in which we organize our code.

#!/usr/bin/python

# function.py


def root(x):
   return x * x

a = root(2)
b = root(15)

print a, b

The example demonstrates a simple new function. The function will calculate the square of a number. The return key is closely connected with a function definition. The keyword exits the function and returns a value. The value is than assigned to the a, b variables.


The lambda keyword creates a new anonymous function. An anonymous function is a function, which is not bound to a specific name. It is also called an inline function.

!/usr/bin/python

# lambda.py

for i in (1, 2, 3, 4, 5):
   a =  lambda x: x * x
   print a(i),

As you can see in the previous example, we do not create a new function with a def keyword. Instead of that we use an inline function on the fly.

$ ./lambda.py 
1 4 9 16 25

If we want to access variables defined outside functions, we use the global keyword.

#!/usr/bin/python

# testglobal.py

x = 15

def function():
   global x
   x = 45

function()
print x

Normally, assigning to x variable inside a function, we create a new local variable, which is valid only in that function. But if we use the global keyword, we change a variable ouside the function definition.

$ ./testglobal.py 
45

Exceptions

Next we will work with keywords, that are used with exception handling.

$ cat films
Fargo
Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes
Capote
Grizzly man
Notes on a scandal

This is a file, containing some film titles. In the code example, we are going to read it.

#!/usr/bin/python

# files.py

f = None

try:
   f = open('films', 'r')
   for i in f:
      print i,
except IOError:
   print "Error reading file"

finally:
   if f:
       f.close()

We try to read a films file. If no exception occurs, we print the contents of the file to the console. There might be an exception. For example, if we provided an incorrect file name. In such a case a IOError exception is raised. The except keyword catches the exception and executes its code. The finally keyword is always executed in the end. We use it to clean up our resources.


In the next example, we show how to create a user defined exception using the raise keyword.

#!/usr/bin/python

# userexception.py

class YesNoException(Exception):
   def __init__(self):
      print 'Invalid value'


answer = 'y'

if (answer != 'yes' and answer != 'no'):
   raise YesNoException
else:
   print 'Correct value'

In the example, we expect only yes/no values. For other possibilities, we raise an exception.

$ ./userexception.py 
Invalid value
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./userexception.py", line 13, in <module>
    raise YesNoException
__main__.YesNoException

Other keywords

The del keyword deletes objects.

#!/usr/bin/python

# delete.py

a = [1, 2, 3, 4]

print a
del a[:2]
print a

In our example, we have a list of four integer numbers. We delete the first numbers from the list. The outcome is printed to the console.

$ ./delete.py 
[1, 2, 3, 4]
[3, 4]

Output.


The pass keyword does nothing. It is a very handy keyword in some situations.

 def function():
     pass

We have a function. This function is not implemented yet. It will be later. The body of the function must not be empty. So we can use a pass keyword here, instead of printing something like "function not implemented yet" or similar.


The assert keyword is used for debugging purposes. We can use it for testing conditions, that are obvious to us. For example, we have a program that calculates salaries. We know that the salary cannot be less than zero. So we might put such an assertion to the code. If the assertion fails, the interpreter will complain.

#!/usr/bin/python

# salary.py

salary = 3500
salary -= 3560 # a mistake was done

assert salary > 0

During the execution of the program a mistake was done. The salary becomes a negative number.

$ ./salary.py 
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./salary.py", line 9, in <module>
    assert salary > 0
AssertionError

The execution of the script will fail with an AssertionError.


The class keyword is the most important keyword in object oriented programming. It is used to create new user defined objects.

#!/usr/bin/python

# square.py

class Square:
   def __init__(self, x):
      self.a = x

   def area(self):
      print self.a * self.a


sq = Square(12)
sq.area()

In the code example, we create a new Square class. Then we instantiate the class and create an object. We compute the area of the square object.


The exec keyword executes Python code dynamically.

#!/usr/bin/python

# execution.py

exec("for i in [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]: print i,")

We print five numbers from a list using a for loop. All within the exec keyword.

$ ./execution.py 
1 2 3 4 5

Finally, we mention the in keyword.

#!/usr/bin/python

# inkeyword.py

print 4 in (2, 3, 5, 6)

for i in range(25):
   print i,

In this example, the in keyword tests if the number four is in the tuple. The second usage is traversing a tuple in a for loop. The built-in function range() returns integers 0 .. 24.

$ ./inkeyword.py 
False
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

The yield keyword is used with generators.

#!/usr/bin/python

# yieldkeyword.py


def gen():
   x = 11
   yield x

it = gen()

print it.next()

The yield keyword exits the generator and returns a value.

$ ./yieldkeyword.py 
11

In this part of the Python tutorial, we have covered Python keywords.