Widgets II in GTK#

In this part of the GTK# programming tutorial, we continue introducing GTK# widgets.

We will cover the Entry widget, the Scale widget, ToggleButton, and Calendar widget.

Entry

The Entry is a single line text entry field. This widget is used to enter textual data.

entry.cs
using Gtk;
using System;
 
class SharpApp : Window {
 
    Label label;

    public SharpApp() : base("Entry")
    {
        SetDefaultSize(250, 200);
        SetPosition(WindowPosition.Center);
        BorderWidth = 7;
        DeleteEvent += delegate { Application.Quit(); };
        
        label = new Label("...");

        Entry entry = new Entry();
        entry.Changed += OnChanged;

        Fixed fix = new Fixed();
        fix.Put(entry, 60, 100);
        fix.Put(label, 60, 40);

        Add(fix);

        ShowAll();
    }

    void OnChanged(object sender, EventArgs args)
    {
        Entry entry = (Entry) sender;
        label.Text = entry.Text;
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Init();
        new SharpApp();
        Application.Run();
    }
}

This example shows an entry widget and a label. The text that we key in the entry is displayed immediately in the label control.

Entry entry = new Entry();

Entry widget is created.

entry.Changed += OnChanged;

If the text in the Entry widget is changed, we call the OnChanged() method.

void OnChanged(object sender, EventArgs args)
{
    Entry entry = (Entry) sender;
    label.Text = entry.Text;
}

We get the text from the Entry widget and set it to the label.

Entry Widget
Figure: Entry Widget

Scale

The Scale is a widget that lets the user graphically select a value by sliding a knob within a bounded interval. Our example will show a volume control.

hscale.cs
using Gtk;
using System;
 
class SharpApp : Window {
 
    Gdk.Pixbuf mute, min, med, max;
    Image image;

    public SharpApp() : base("Scale")
    {
        SetDefaultSize(260, 150);
        SetPosition(WindowPosition.Center);
        DeleteEvent += delegate { Application.Quit(); };
        
        HScale scale = new HScale(0, 100, 1);
        scale.SetSizeRequest(160, 35);
        scale.ValueChanged += OnChanged;

        LoadPixbufs();

        image = new Image(mute);

        Fixed fix = new Fixed();
        fix.Put(scale, 20, 40);
        fix.Put(image, 219, 50);

        Add(fix);

        ShowAll();
    }

    void LoadPixbufs() 
    {
        try {
            mute = new Gdk.Pixbuf("mute.png");
            min = new Gdk.Pixbuf("min.png");
            med = new Gdk.Pixbuf("med.png");
            max = new Gdk.Pixbuf("max.png");
        } catch {
            Console.WriteLine("Error reading Pixbufs");
            Environment.Exit(1);
        }
    }

    void OnChanged(object obj, EventArgs args)
    {
        HScale scale = (HScale) obj;
        double val = scale.Value;

        if (val == 0) {
            image.Pixbuf = mute;
        } else if (val > 0 && val < 30) {
            image.Pixbuf = min;
        } else if (val > 30 && val < 80) {
            image.Pixbuf = med;
        } else {
            image.Pixbuf = max;
        }
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Init();
        new SharpApp();
        Application.Run();
    }
}

In the example above, we have HScale and Image widgets. By dragging the scale we change the image on the Image widget.

HScale scale = new HScale(0, 100, 1);

HScale widget is created. The parameters are lower boundary, upper boundary and step.

HScale scale = (HScale) obj;
double val = scale.Value;

In the OnChange() method we obtain the value of the scale widget.

if (val == 0) {
    image.Pixbuf = mute;
} else if (val > 0 && val <= 30) {
    image.Pixbuf = min;
} else if (val > 30 && val < 80) {
    image.Pixbuf = med;
} else {
image.Pixbuf = max;
}

Depending on the obtained value, we change the picture in the image widget.

HScale Widget
Figure: HScale Widget

ToggleButton

ToggleButton is a button that has two states: pressed and not pressed. You toggle between these two states by clicking on it. There are situations where this functionality fits well.

togglebuttons.cs
using Gtk;
using System;
 
class SharpApp : Window {
 
    DrawingArea darea;
    Gdk.Color col;

    public SharpApp() : base("ToggleButtons")
    {
        col = new Gdk.Color(0, 0, 0);

        SetDefaultSize(350, 240);
        SetPosition(WindowPosition.Center);
        BorderWidth = 7;
        DeleteEvent += delegate { Application.Quit(); };
        
        ToggleButton red = new ToggleButton("Red");
        red.SetSizeRequest(80, 35);
        red.Clicked += OnRed;

        ToggleButton green = new ToggleButton("Green");
        green.SetSizeRequest(80, 35);
        green.Clicked += OnGreen;

        ToggleButton blue = new ToggleButton("Blue");
        blue.SetSizeRequest(80, 35);
        blue.Clicked += OnBlue;

        darea = new DrawingArea();
        darea.SetSizeRequest(150, 150);
        darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);

        Fixed fix = new Fixed();
        fix.Put(red, 30, 30);
        fix.Put(green, 30, 80);
        fix.Put(blue, 30, 130);
        fix.Put(darea, 150, 30);

        Add(fix);

        ShowAll();
    }

    void OnRed(object sender, EventArgs args) 
    {
        ToggleButton tb = (ToggleButton) sender;
        
        if (tb.Active) {
            col.Red = 65535; 
        } else {
            col.Red = 0;
        }

        darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);         
    }

    void OnGreen(object sender, EventArgs args) 
    {
        ToggleButton tb = (ToggleButton) sender;

        if (tb.Active) {
            col.Green = 65535; 
        } else {
            col.Green = 0;
        }
        
        darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);
    }

    void OnBlue(object sender, EventArgs args) 
    {
        ToggleButton tb = (ToggleButton) sender;

        if (tb.Active) {
            col.Blue = 65535; 
        } else {
            col.Blue = 0;
        }

        darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Init();
        new SharpApp();
        Application.Run();
    }
}

In our example, we show three toggle buttons and a DrawingArea. We set the background colour of the area to black. The toggle buttons will toggle the red, green and blue parts of the colour value. The background colour will depend on which toggle buttons we have pressed.

col = new Gdk.Color(0, 0, 0);

This is the colour value that is going to be updated with the toggle buttons.

ToggleButton red = new ToggleButton("Red");
red.SetSizeRequest(80, 35);
red.Clicked += OnRed;

The ToggleButton widget is created. We set its size to 80x35 pixels. Each of the toggle buttons has its own handler method.

darea = new DrawingArea();
darea.SetSizeRequest(150, 150);
darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);

The DrawingArea widget is the widget that displays the colour, mixed by the toggle buttons. At start, it shows black colour.

if (tb.Active) {
    col.Red = 65535; 
} else {
    col.Red = 0;
}

We update the red part of the colour according to the value of the Active property.

darea.ModifyBg(StateType.Normal, col);

We update the colour of the DrawingArea widget.

ToggleButton widget
Figure: ToggleButton widget

Calendar

Our final widget is the Calendar widget. It is used to work with dates.

calendar.cs
using Gtk;
using System;
 
class SharpApp : Window {
 
    private Label label;

    public SharpApp() : base("Calendar")
    {
        SetDefaultSize(300, 270);
        SetPosition(WindowPosition.Center);
        DeleteEvent += delegate { Application.Quit(); };
        
        label = new Label("...");

        Calendar calendar = new Calendar();
        calendar.DaySelected += OnDaySelected;

        Fixed fix = new Fixed();
        fix.Put(calendar, 20, 20);
        fix.Put(label, 40, 230);

        Add(fix);

        ShowAll();
    }

    void OnDaySelected(object sender, EventArgs args)
    {
        Calendar cal = (Calendar) sender;
        label.Text = cal.Month + 1 + "/" + cal.Day + "/" + cal.Year;
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Init();
        new SharpApp();
        Application.Run();
    }
}

We have the Calendar widget and a Label. The selected day from the calendar is shown in the label.

Calendar calendar = new Calendar();

Calendar widget is created.

Calendar cal = (Calendar) sender;
label.Text = cal.Month + 1 + "/" + cal.Day + "/" + cal.Year;

In the OnDaySelected() method we get the referece to the Calendar widget, and update the label to the currently selected date.

Calendar
Figure: Calendar

In this chapter, we finished talking about the GTK# widgets.