Images in Cairo

In this part of the Cairo graphics tutorial, we will talk about the images. We will show how to display an image on the GTK window. We will also create some effects with images.

Displaying an image

In the first example, we will display an image.

#include <cairo.h>
#include <gtk/gtk.h>

struct {
  cairo_surface_t *image;  
} glob;


static void do_drawing(cairo_t *);

static gboolean on_draw_event(GtkWidget *widget, cairo_t *cr, 
    gpointer user_data)
{      
  do_drawing(cr);

  return FALSE;
}

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *cr)
{
  cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);
  cairo_paint(cr);    
}


int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
  GtkWidget *window;
  GtkWidget *darea;
  
  glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("stmichaelschurch.png");

  gtk_init(&argc, &argv);

  window = gtk_window_new(GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL);

  darea = gtk_drawing_area_new();
  gtk_container_add(GTK_CONTAINER (window), darea);

  g_signal_connect(G_OBJECT(darea), "draw", 
      G_CALLBACK(on_draw_event), NULL); 
  g_signal_connect(window, "destroy",
      G_CALLBACK (gtk_main_quit), NULL);

  gtk_window_set_position(GTK_WINDOW(window), GTK_WIN_POS_CENTER);
  gtk_window_set_default_size(GTK_WINDOW(window), 300, 220); 
  gtk_window_set_title(GTK_WINDOW(window), "Image");

  gtk_widget_show_all(window);

  gtk_main();

  cairo_surface_destroy(glob.image);

  return 0;
}

The example displays an image.

glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("stmichaelschurch.png");

We create an image surface from a PNG image. For efficiency reasons, the function is called in the main function.

cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);

We create a source for painting from the created image surface.

cairo_paint(cr);   

We paint the source on the window.

cairo_surface_destroy(glob.image);

In the end, the surface is destroyed.

Watermark

It is common to draw information on images. The text written on an image is called a watermark. Watermarks are used to identify images. They could be copyright notices or image creation times.

#include <cairo.h>
#include <gtk/gtk.h>

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *, GtkWidget *widget);

struct {
  cairo_surface_t *image;  
} glob;

static gboolean on_draw_event(GtkWidget *widget, cairo_t *cr, 
    gpointer user_data)
{      
  do_drawing(cr, widget);  

  return FALSE;
}

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *cr, GtkWidget *widget)
{
  cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);
  cairo_paint(cr);
}

static void load_image()
{        
  glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("beckov.png"); 
}

static void draw_mark() 
{ 
  cairo_t *ic;
  ic = cairo_create(glob.image);
  cairo_set_font_size(ic, 11);
  
  cairo_set_source_rgb(ic, 0.9 , 0.9 , 0.9);
  cairo_move_to(ic, 20, 30);
  cairo_show_text(ic, " Beckov 2012 , (c) Jan Bodnar ");
  cairo_stroke(ic);   
}

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  GtkWidget *window;
  GtkWidget *darea;
  
  load_image();
  draw_mark();

  gtk_init(&argc, &argv);

  window = gtk_window_new(GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL);

  darea = gtk_drawing_area_new();
  gtk_container_add(GTK_CONTAINER (window), darea);

  g_signal_connect(G_OBJECT(darea), "draw", 
      G_CALLBACK(on_draw_event), NULL); 
  g_signal_connect(window, "destroy",
      G_CALLBACK(gtk_main_quit), NULL);

  gtk_window_set_position(GTK_WINDOW(window), GTK_WIN_POS_CENTER);
  gtk_window_set_default_size(GTK_WINDOW(window), 350, 250); 
  gtk_window_set_title(GTK_WINDOW(window), "Watermark");

  gtk_widget_show_all(window);

  gtk_main();
  
  cairo_surface_destroy(glob.image);

  return 0;
}

We draw copyright information on an image.

static void load_image()
{        
  glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("beckov.png"); 
}

In the load_image() method, we create an image surface from a PNG image.

static void draw_mark() 
{ 
  cairo_t *ic;
  ic = cairo_create(glob.image);
...

In the draw_mark() function, we draw the copyright message on the image. First we create a drawing context from the image surface.

cairo_set_font_size(ic, 11);

cairo_set_source_rgb(ic, 0.9 , 0.9 , 0.9);
cairo_move_to(ic, 20, 30);
cairo_show_text(ic, " Beckov 2012 , (c) Jan Bodnar ");
cairo_stroke(ic);   

Then we draw a small text in white colour.

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *cr, GtkWidget *widget)
{
  cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);
  cairo_paint(cr);
}

The image surface is drawn on the window.

The spectrum effect

We call this a spectrum effect, because it resembles and old ZX Spectrum computer. When you were loading an image into this computer, it was gradually appearing on the screen. The next example is loosly based on this experience.

#include <cairo.h>
#include <gtk/gtk.h>

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *);

struct {
  gboolean timer;
  cairo_surface_t *image;
  cairo_surface_t *surface;
  gint img_width;
  gint img_height;
} glob;


static void init_vars()
{
  glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("beckov.png");
  
  glob.img_width = cairo_image_surface_get_width(glob.image);
  glob.img_height = cairo_image_surface_get_height(glob.image);  
  
  glob.surface = cairo_image_surface_create(CAIRO_FORMAT_ARGB32, 
      glob.img_width, glob.img_height);    
  glob.timer = TRUE;   
}

static gboolean on_draw_event(GtkWidget *widget, cairo_t *cr, 
    gpointer user_data)
{      
  do_drawing(cr);
  
  return FALSE;
}

static void do_drawing(cairo_t *cr)
{
  cairo_t *ic;

  static gint count = 0;

  ic = cairo_create(glob.surface);

  gint i, j;
  for (i = 0; i <= glob.img_height; i+=7) {
      for (j = 0 ; j < count; j++) {
          cairo_move_to(ic, 0, i+j);
          cairo_line_to(ic, glob.img_width, i+j);
      }
  }

  count++;
  if (count == 8) glob.timer = FALSE;

  cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);
  cairo_mask_surface(cr, glob.surface, 10, 10);
  cairo_stroke(ic);

  cairo_destroy(ic);  
}

static gboolean time_handler(GtkWidget *widget)
{
  if (!glob.timer) return FALSE;

  gtk_widget_queue_draw(widget);
  return TRUE;
}


int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
  GtkWidget *window;
  GtkWidget *darea;

  init_vars();

  gtk_init(&argc, &argv);

  window = gtk_window_new(GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL);
  
  darea = gtk_drawing_area_new();
  gtk_container_add(GTK_CONTAINER (window), darea);

  g_signal_connect(G_OBJECT(darea), "draw", 
      G_CALLBACK(on_draw_event), NULL); 
  g_signal_connect(G_OBJECT(window), "destroy",
      G_CALLBACK(gtk_main_quit), NULL);

  gtk_window_set_position(GTK_WINDOW(window), GTK_WIN_POS_CENTER);
  gtk_window_set_default_size(GTK_WINDOW(window), 325, 250); 
  gtk_window_set_title(GTK_WINDOW(window), "Spectrum");

  g_timeout_add(400, (GSourceFunc) time_handler, (gpointer) window);

  gtk_widget_show_all(window);

  gtk_main();

  cairo_surface_destroy(glob.image);
  cairo_surface_destroy(glob.surface);  

  return 0;
}

We divide the image into n parts consisting of 8 lines. Each cycle each part of the image will get bigger by one pixel. The created image will serve as a mask for displaying the image of the castle.

struct {
  gboolean timer;
  cairo_surface_t *image;
  cairo_surface_t *surface;
  gint img_width;
  gint img_height;
} glob;

The glob structure stores variables that are used within more functions.

static void init_vars()
{
  glob.image = cairo_image_surface_create_from_png("beckov.png");
  
  glob.img_width = cairo_image_surface_get_width(glob.image);
  glob.img_height = cairo_image_surface_get_height(glob.image);  
  
  glob.surface = cairo_image_surface_create(CAIRO_FORMAT_ARGB32, 
      glob.img_width, glob.img_height);    
  glob.timer = TRUE;   
}

In the init_vars() function, we initiate the aforementioned variables.

gint i, j;
for (i = 0; i <= glob.img_height; i+=7) {
    for (j = 0 ; j < count; j++) {
        cairo_move_to(ic, 0, i+j);
        cairo_line_to(ic, glob.img_width, i+j);
    }
}

We gradully draw lines into each of the n parts.

count++;
if (count == 8) glob.timer = FALSE;

After 8 steps, the animation finishes.

cairo_set_source_surface(cr, glob.image, 10, 10);
cairo_mask_surface(cr, glob.surface, 10, 10);
cairo_stroke(ic);

Using the mask operation, we draw the portions of the image on the window.

This chapter covered images in Cairo.